12/16/2014 CBSE

Q.1. Explain the importance of the following
events on the course of the French Revolution:

(a) Storming of the Bastille  (c) The passing of the
Civil Constitution of the clergy

Ans. (a) On July 14, 1789, a mob of Paris stormed the fortress �
the prison of Bastille � considered a symbol of oppression and despotism. The
Swiss guards were killed and prisoners set free. The mob stole arms and
ammunition. To this day, France celebrates �Bastille Day� on 14thJuly every

 (c) In 1790, the Civil Constitution nationalised
the church. The clergy or group of persons who enjoyed special powers in the
church were also forced to relinquish power. Tithes were abolished and lands
owned by the church were confiscated.

Q.2. Describe the Reign of Terror and role
played by Robespierre in it.

Ans.The period from 1793 to 1794 is referred to as the Reign
of Terror.

1. Maximilian Robespierre, leader of the
Jacobins, followed the policy of severe control and punishment.

2. All those he saw as enemies of the Republic �
ex-nobles, clergy, political opponents � were arrested, tried and guillotined
if found guilty.

3.  He
issued laws placing a maximum ceiling on wages and prices.

4. Meat and bread were rationed.

5. Use of expensive white flour was forbidden.

Robespierre followed his policies so relentlessly that
even his supporters began to demand moderation. Finally, he was convicted,
arrested and guillotined in July 1794.

Q.3What did the following symbols convey in
the Declaration of Rights?

(i) The broken chain (ii) The bundle of rods or fasces  (iii)Sceptre

 (iv)Snake biting its tail to form a ring (v) Red Phrygian cap (vi)The law tablet

Ans. (i) the broken chains: Chains were used to fetter
slaves. A broken chain stands for the act of becoming free.

(ii) The bundle of rods or fasces: One rod can be easily broken, but not an
entire bundle.Strength lies in unity.

(iii) Sceptre: Symbol of royal power.

(iv)Snake biting its tail to form a ring: Symbol of eternity. A ring has neither
beginning nor end.

(v) Red Phrygian cap: Cap worn by a slave upon becoming free.

(vi)The law tablet: The law is the same for all, and all are
equal before it.

Q.4.write short note on Jacobins?

Ans.1- They got their name from the former convent of St.
Jacob in Paris.

2-They belonged to the less prosperous sections of the

3-They included small shopkeepers, artisans such as
shoemakers, pastry cooks, watch-makers, printers, as well as servants and daily
wage earners.

4-Their leader was Maximilian

5-A large group among the Jacobin decided to wear long
striped trousers similar to those worn by dock workers.

6-This was to set themselves apart from the
fashionable sections of society especially the nobles who wore knee breeches.

Q.5. Discuss the participation of women in
political clubs, their activities and demands.

Ans.From the very beginning, women were active participants
in the events which brought about so many important changes in French society.

1. They
hoped that their involvement would pressurise the revolutionary government to
introduce measures to improve their lives.

2. Most
women of the third estate had to work for a living. They worked as seamstresses
or laundresses, sold flowers, fruits and vegetables at the market, or were
employed as domestic servants in the houses of prosperous people.

3. Most
women did not have access to education or job training. Their wages were lower
than those of men.

4. One
of their main demands was that women should be given the same political rights
as men.

5. Women
were disappointed that the constitution of 1791 reduced them to passive

Q.7. Describe the causes for the fall of
Jacobin government in France.

Ans. (i) The Jacobin government in France was based on extreme
measures. The period from 1793-1794 is referred to as the reign of terror.
Robespierre followed a policy of severe Control and punishment.

(ii)All those he saw as being �enemies� of
the republic nobles and clergy, members of other political parties, even
members of his own party who did not agree with his methods�were arrested,
imprisoned and guillotined. This led to chaos and resentment among the people.

 (iii)Robespierre�s government ordered shutting
down of churches and converting church buildings into barricades or offices.
Thus the clergy turned against the Jacobin regime and hastened its fall.

(iv) Robespierre pursued his policies so
relentlessly that even his supporters turned against him. They began to demand
moderation and a middle path. Finally, he himself was tried by a court in July
1794, arrested and guillotined.

Q.1What landmark decisions were
taken by the National Assembly led by the Third Estate on 4th August, 1789

Ans.1- Louis XVI finally accorded recognition to the National
Assembly and accepted theprinciple that his powers would be checked by a

2- On 4 August 1789, the Assembly passed a decree
abolishing the feudal system of obligations and taxes. Members of the clergy
too were forced to give up their privileges

.3- Tithes were abolished and lands owned by
the church were confiscated. As a result, the government acquired assets worth
at least 2, billion lives.

Q.2. Describe the importance of Declaration
of the Right of Man in France.

 Ans 1-The Declaration of the Right of Man in France
was a landmark decision in the history of France.

2- The constitution began with a declaration
of the Rights of Man and Citizen. Rights such as the right to life, freedom of
speech, freedom of opinion, equality before law, were established as �natural
and inalienable� rights. That is, they belonged to each human being by birth
and could not be taken away

.3- It was the duty of the state to protect
each citizen's natural rights. The declaration of the Right of Man and Citizens
influenced revolutionary movements elsewhere too.

Q.3. Discuss the participation of women in
political clubs, their activities and demands.

Ans. 1-Women played
important role regarding various activities.
 In order to discuss and voice their interests
women started their own political clubs and newspapers. About sixty women�s
clubs came up in different French cities.

2.The Society of Revolutionary and
Republican Women was the most famous of them, their main demands were that

(a) Women should be given the same political
rights as men.

(b) They demanded the right to vote, to be
elected to the Assembly and to hold political office.

3- In the early years, the revolutionary
government did introduce laws that helped improve the lives of women. Together
with the creation of state schools, schooling was made compulsory for all
girls. Their fathers could no longer force them into marriage against their
will. Marriage was made into a contract entered into freely and registered
under civil law. Divorce was made legal, and could be applied for by both women
and men. Women could now train for jobs, could become artists or run small businesses.

4- Women�s struggle for equal political rights,
however, continued. During the Reign of Terror, the new government issued laws
ordering closure of women�s clubs, and banning their political activities.
Women�s movements for voting rights and equal wages continued through the next
two hundred years in many countries of the world. It was finally in 1946 that
women in France won the right to vote

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