CLASS X (Theory)
Unit 1 : Chemical Substances - Nature and Behaviour
Acids, bases and salts : General properties, examples and
uses, concept of pH scale, importance of pH in everyday life; preparation and
uses of sodium hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking soda, washing soda and
Plaster of Paris.
Chemical reactions : Chemical Equation, Types of chemical
reactions : combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement,
precipitation, neutralization, oxidation and reduction in terms of gain and loss
of oxygen and hydrogen.
Metals and non metals : General properties of Metals and
Non-metals, reactivity series, Formation and properties of ionic compounds,
Basic Metallurgical processes, corrosion and its prevention.
Carbon Compounds : Covalent bonding in carbon compounds.
Versatile nature of carbon, Nomenclature of carbon compounds, Functional groups,
difference between saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons, Ethanol
and Ethanoic acid (only properties and uses), soaps and detergents.
Periodic classification of elements : Modern Periodic
table, Gradation in Properties.
Unit 2 : World of Living
Life Processes : "living" things; Basic concept of
nutrition, respiration, transport and excretion in plants and animals.
Control and Co-ordination in animals and plants : Tropic
movements in plants; Introduction to plant hormones; control and co-ordination
in animals : voluntary, involuntary and reflex action, nervous system; chemical
co-ordination : animal hormones.
Reproduction : Reproduction in animal and plants (asexual
and sexual). Need for and methods of family planning. Safe sex vs HIV/AIDS.
Child bearing and women's health.
Heridity and evolution : Heridity; Origin of life : brief
introduction; Basic concepts of evolution.
Unit 3 : Effects of Current
Potential difference and electric current. Ohm's law; Resistance, Factors
on which the resistance of a conductor depends. Series combination of resistors,
parallel combination of resistors; Heating effect of Electric current; Electric
Power, Inter relation between P, V, I and R.
Magnets : Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a
current carrying wire, field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on
current carrying conductor, Fleming's left hand rule. Electro magnetic
induction. Induced potential difference, Induced current. Fleming's Right Hand
Rule, Direct current. Alternating current; frequency of AC. Advantage of AC over
DC. Domestic electric circuits.
Unit 4 : Reflection of light at curved surfaces, Images
formed by spherical mirrors, centre of curvature, principal axis, principal
focus, focal length. Mirror Formula (Derivation not required), Magnification.
Refraction; laws of refraction, refractive index.
Refraction of light by spherical lens, Image formed by spherical lenses,
Lens formula (Derivation not required), Magnification. Power of a lens;
Functioning of a lens in human eye, problems of vision and remedies,
applications of spherical mirrors and lenses.
Refraction of light through a prism, dispersion of light, scattering of
light, applications in daily life.
Unit 5 : Conservation of natural resources : Management
of natural resources. Conservation and judicious use of natural resources.
Forest and wild life, coal and petroleum conservation. Examples of People's
participation for conservation of natural resources.
The Regional environment : Big dams : advantages and
limitations; alternatives if any. Water harvesting. Sustainability of natural
Sources of energy : Different forms of energy,
conventional and non-conventional sources of energy: fossil fuels, solar energy;
biogas; wind, water and tidal energy; nuclear. Renewable versus non-renewable
Our Environment : Eco-system, Environmental problems,
their solutions. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable, substances ozone
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. To find the pH of the following samples by using pH paper/universal
i) Dilute Hydrochloric acid
ii) Dilute NaOH solution
iii) Dilute Ethanoic acid solution
iv) Lemon juice
vi) Dilute Sodium Bicarbonate Solution.
2. To study the properties of acids and bases HCl & NaOH by their reaction
i) Litmus solution (Blue/Red)
ii) Zinc metal
iii) Solid Sodium Carbonate
3. To determine the focal length of
a) Concave mirror
b) Convex lens by obtaining the image of a distant object.
4. To trace the path of a ray of light passing through a rectangular glass
slab for different angles of incidence.
Measure the angle of incidence, angle of refraction, angle of emergence
and interpret the result.
5. To study the dependence of current (I) on the potential difference (V)
across a resistor and determine its resistance. Also plot a graph between V and
6. To determine the equivalent resistance of two resistors when connected
7. To determine the equivalent resistance of two resistors when connected
8. To prepare a temporary mount of a leaf peel to show stomata.
9. To show experimentally that light is necessary for photosynthesis.
10. To show experimentally that carbon dioxide is given out during
11. To study (a) binary fission in Amoeba and (b) budding in yeast with
the help of prepared slides.
12. To determine the percentage of water absorbed by raisins.
13. To perform and observe the following reactions and classify them into:
i) Combination Reaction
ii) Decomposition Reaction
iii) Displacement Reaction
iv) Double Displacement Reaction
1. Action of water on quick lime.
2. Action of heat on Ferrous Sulphate crystals
3. Iron Nails kept in copper sulphate solution
4. Reaction between Sodium sulphate and Barium chloride solutions.
14. a) To observe the action of Zn, Fe, Cu and Al metals on the following
i) ZnSO4 (aq.)
ii) FeSO4 (aq.)
iii) CuSO4 (aq.)
iv) Al2 (SO4)3 (aq.)
b) Arrange Zn, Fe, Cu and Al metals in the decreasing order of reactivity
based on the above result.
15. To study the following properties of acetic acid (ethanoic acid) :
ii) solubility in water
iii) effect on litmus
iv) reaction with sodium bicarbonate