Agriculture is the mainstay of our economy. It provides food to our millions and raw materials for our industries. Work in agricultural sectors ranges from the totally academic pursuits of research and teaching to inspection and other supervisory work to commercial activities of establishing farms, plantations, orchards and carrying on exports of produce from them.
The impact of agriculture is not only on the production of food grains, vegetables and fruits, but on so many agriculture dependent industries which get its raw material from agriculture sector. A good monsoon would drive the sensex raging as bull, while floods or other such calamities would bring it to a grinding halt.
India also has enormous potential as an exporter of agricultural commodities. The variety of climatic types and natural conditions offer a conducive environment for the cultivation of a large variety of agricultural produce.
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Career Options in Agriculture Science & Technology
Agricultural engineering uses scientific principles and technology to solve problems relating to sustainable agricultural production. Agricultural Engineers perform tasks such as planning, supervising and managing the building of dairy effluent schemes, irrigation, drainage, flood and water control systems, perform environmental impact assessments and interpret research results and implement relevant practices.
Food processing industry is of great significance for India's development because of its vital linkages between the two inter-related pillars of our economy i.e. industry and agriculture.
Going by a study conducted by McKinsey and Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), the turnover of the total Indian food market is about Rs.250, 000 crore.
Fast growth in the food processing sector and improvement in the value chain system are quite vital to achieve favorable terms of trade for Indian agriculture.
The sector calls for immediate attention as the post-harvest losses of many Fruits and Vegetable is about 25 to 30 per cent in our country which could be prevented through effective food-processing techniques.
The major thrust areas in this context include: Canning, Dairy and Food Processing, Specialty Processing, Packaging, Frozen Food/Refrigeration and Thermo Processing, Fruits & Vegetables, Fisheries, Milk & Milk Products, Meat & Poultry, Alcoholic Beverages & Soft Drinks and Grains and Health food.
It is the field that involves cultivation of plants, vegetables, flowers, fruits, herbs, shrubs, bushes, ornamental trees and landscaping for gardens, maintaining nurseries, green houses, gardens, orchards and plantations but also includes floriculture or cultivation of flowers.
With ever-growing importance with regards to issues like global warming, deforestation, global climatic change, water scarcity and natural disasters, etc, the forestry sector has emerged as an important discipline of study.� Nations have now realized the importance of effective and controlled use of forest wealth.
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With approximately three-quarters of the Earth's surface covered with water, aqua science has materialized as an important subject area. This profession deals with specialization in water and underwater environments. Broadly speaking aqua science is the multi-disciplinary study of Earth's interrelated processes (atmosphere, oceans, and land surface) and their relationship to different changes in the Earth system.
For over many decades, dairy Farming has been an active source of employment to millions of Indians. Of late, this sector has shown significant development and now has helped India become the second biggest producer of milk and value-added milk products in the world. In India, the dairy sector has been mainly developed through co-operatives in many parts of the Indian states.
Plant Pathology is a branch of agricultural science that deals with the study of fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, and other microbes that cause diseases of plants. The branch focuses on understanding how hosts, pathogens, and environments interact to cause plant diseases and on understanding how to control plant diseases. A plant pathologist is a person who specializes in plant health much similar to a physician who specializes in human health or a veterinarian in animal health.
Environmental Engineering is a budding branch of study in engineering that makes use of the tools and techniques of science and engineering disciplines to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources) from pollution and to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms.
Poultry farming is the commercial raising of chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese for their meat and eggs. In India, poultry farming has emerged as a highly structured and market -oriented business. These days, names of famous poultry firms like Venkateshwara hatcheries and Al-Kabeer etc are doing the rounds of elite food markets both nationally and globally.
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Dairy Technology & Management:
The dairy management is a diversified field consisting of many tasks, tools and principles from the discipline of management sciences. It draws help from these disciplines to better mange the whole process of Dairy Farming. India is the second largest milk producer in the world and the white revolution has established Dairy industry as an important pillar of the Indian economy.
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Sericulture is the craft and technology of breading silk worms for the production of raw silk yarn. It includes all activities related to their breeding such as mulberry cultivation and post-cocoon technology. This art requires technical expertise to breed silkworms.
Indian sericulture contributes four types of silk Mulberry, Tassar, Eri & Muga to the World of silk fabrics. India has to do a lot with regard to stiff competition faced by it by different global competitors.
It is the management and study of honeybees. Honey bees are natural source of a precious product � honey, as a nutritious tem for human consumption since ancient times and used in a large number of Ayurvedic medicines as a drug vehicle.
Because of its natural occurrence, quality, fragrance and known mode of action in the human body, honey is added during formulation of different products.
Of late, due to rapid strides in technology in all the spheres of bee�breeding, significant increase in the honey�production has been seen at the national level.
As far as pay-package with the government sector is concerned, the monthly remuneration of a fresh graduate of agricultural sciences, appointed by respective state/central government starts from Rs.7000 and can go up to Rs.20,000. It also depends upon one�s experience and his total years of service. District agricultural inspector/officer gets monthly salary more than Rs.12, 000. The salary of agricultural scientists varies between Rs.18, 000 and 25, 000.
The private sector offers lucrative pay-packages. Professionals with good grades in agricultural sciences are offered handsome salary-package in addition to many other benefits as decided by the respective firm/company. Generally as a starter in the profession, one can look forward to a salary in the range of Rs.10, 000 to Rs. 20, 000 per month.