Anthropology

8/17/2013 Career




Anthropology is a science which encompasses the study and
evolution of man in totality, against the backdrop of society.
It traces not only the evolution of man from primitive to
contemporary times, but also the physical and cultural
diversity of human living in different environments. It is
believed in India because of the interest of the colonial
rulers. While establishing their rule in the country they made
attempts to study the living habits of the people which were
compiled in the form of books. However, it was formally
introduced as a subject in 1920 by Calcutta University which
started a Master's programme in the same year. Unfortunately,
even though so many years have passed, Anthropology remains
one of the lesser known and less popular subjects, its
potential yet to be explored to the fullest.



Course Requirements: 



A Science background at the +2
level is preferred for a B.Sc. programme in Anthropology. One
must have a M.Sc. degree in order to get an entry level job in
the field. If you want to work with international development
agencies as an advisor you got to have a Ph.D. degree in the
subject.



Almost all established
universities in India offer B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in
Anthropology. These include the Universities of Delhi,
Allahabad, Garhwal, Kolkata, Vishwabharti, Vidyasagar, Utkal,
Sambalpur, Manipur, Dibrugarh, etc.



Nearly all universities abroad
offer courses in Anthropology. Cambridges has a faculty of
Archaeology and Anthropology, commonly known as "Archanth",
which offers undergraduate programmes in the three main
branches of Anthropology. Oxford offers programmes (M.Anthropology,
such as Medical Anthropology, Visual Anthropology, Material
Anthropology, etc.



Branches of Anthropology:



since Anthropology studies the
various dimensions of man's existence and it is a broad
subject, it encompasses specialised branches. These branches
are Sociocultural Anthropology, Prehistoric
Anthropology(Archaeology), Physicalor Biological Anthropology,
Linguistic Anthropology and Applied Anthropology.



  • Socio-cultural Anthropology:
    This branch deals with various aspects of socio-cultural
    behaviour of people like how people form groups and
    communities, how cultures develop, etc. It studies
    socio-economic changes, cultural differences among different
    communities and regions and the reasons for such
    differences, as also cross-cultural communication, evolution
    of languages, evolution of technology and patterns of change
    in different cultures.

  • Prehistoric-Anthropology
    (Archaeology):
    The branch
    tries to reconstruct history on the basis of relics, bones
    or other artifacts, coins, stone carvings, statues or
    remains of urban structures that are dug up. Such findings
    help to understand the chronological sequence of events. On
    the basis of these, archaeologists try to investigate and
    analyse early human activity. Archaeologists also explore
    recorded documents that might be found in historical sites,
    museums, palaces and elsewhere.

  • Physical or Biological Anthropology:
    This branch is concerned with the physical and biological
    characteristics of the primate order, for example, humans
    and their past links with other primates (like chimpanzes,
    gorillas, monkeys, etc). It also studies the physical
    differences between races, human genetics, modes of
    physiological adaptation and reactins to different physical
    environments. This branch in turn includes various
    subdisciplines such as primate biology, osteology (study of
    bones and skeletons), paleoanthropology (old deed primates
    of ancient times), forensic anthropology (to understand the
    course of death due to homicide, suicide, accident or
    otherwise), etc.

  • Applied Anithropology:
    The basic information and reports
    obtained from work in the other specialisations are put to
    use in Applied Anthropology in government services such as
    birth control, medicine, treating malnutrition, helping
    growth, juvenile delinquency, labour unrest in industries,
    agricultural practices, tribal welfare and regabilitation,
    etc.

  • Linguistic Anthropology:This
    branch deals with origin and construction of unwritten as
    well as written languages. Some anthropologists may choose
    to take a cross disciplinary approach to the field and study
    two or more branches such as linguistics, chemistry,
    nutrition or behavioural science and then apply the their
    respective ongoing study of say Cultural Anthropology.


Nature of Work: 



Basically, Anthropologists are
academics who are usually employed by universities to research
in their areas of specialisation. Most of the work involves
writing, editing, fieldwork, teaching, consulting other
professionals and presenting papers. To become an expert on a
particular region or culture, you have to spend years of
hardwork in study in often remote locations.



Prospects:



Anthropology as a subject has
already gained momentum in the West, with various related
institutes and organisations being set up. Anthropologists are
on the staff of leading medical, business, law, public affairs
and other professional schools and have played a critical role
in international ventures, public health programmes, community
development activities and minority and migrant social
actions.



In India, research jobs are
available in organisations like the Archaeological Survey of
India, the planning Commission and international bodies such
as WHO, UNESCO and UNICEF. Openings are also available with
museums and NGO's working in underdeveloped areas.



Graduates with a background in
the subject may find works as anthropologists, archaeologists,
archivists, curators, writers, researchers, linguists, social
workers, tour guides, cultural resource managers, urban
plannets, etc. Art galleries, historical societies, government
agencies, documentary film companies, college and
universities, insurance companies, libraries, conservation
organisations, public and private schools. Publishing
companies and social service organisations also employ
anthropologists.



Remuneration:



Since the job prospectus are
diverse, the salary can vary tremendously. There is a
cut-throat competition among researchers for grant money,
which depends on their reputation and the value of their
research. Money does not come fast. One must be patient and
geared towards research. Rigorous fieldwork and persistence as
well as good communication skills are essential.



Knowledge of Anthropology gives
you opportunity to work with people of many groups and
cultures and interact with them from very close quarters. This
will definitely broaden your horizon and make you a true
citizens of this country and the world at large.



List of Institutions offering B.A/B.Sc./M.A./M.Sc
in Anthropology in India
 



  • Andhra University,
    Vishakhapatnam - 530 003

  • Bangalore University,
    Bangalore - 560 056

  • Berhampur University, Bhanja
    Bihar, Berhampur, Distt, Ganjam, Orissa - 760 007


  • Dibrugharh University,
    Dibrugarh, Assam

  • Dr.Hari Singh Gour Vishwa
    Vidyalaya, Gour Nagar, Sagar, MP

  • Guwahati University, PO,
    Gopinath Bordili Nagar, Guwahati, Assam

  • Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna
    Garhwal University, Srinagar, Garhwal, Uttar Pradesh


  • Karnataka University, Pavate
    Nagar, Dharwad, Karnataka

  • Kurukshetra University,
    Kurukshetra, Haryana

  • Manipur University, Canchipur,
    Imphal, Manipur

  • Nagarjuna University,
    Nagarjuna Nagar - 522 510

  • North Eastern Hill
    University, Shillong - 793 002

  • North Maharashtra University,
    Jalgaon - 425 002

  • Pt.Ravishankar Shukla
    University, Raipur-492 010

  • Pune University, Pune - 411
    007

  • Punjab University, Paliala -
    147 002

  • Punjab University, Sector 14,
    Chandigarh, Punjab

  • Ranchi University, Ranchi,
    Ranchi - 834 001

  • Sambalpur University, Jyoti
    Vihar, Burla, Orissa

  • Siddhu Kanhu University,
    Dumka - 814 101

  • Sri Venkateshwara University,
    Tirupati, Chittor District, AP

  • University of Allahabad,
    Allahabad - 211 002

  • University of Calcutta,
    Senate House, 87, College Street, Calcutta, West Bengal

  • University of Delhi, Delhi -
    110 007

  • University of Hyderabad,
    Hyderabad - 500 046

  • University of Mumbai, Mumbai
    - 400 001

  • University of Mysore, Mysore
    - 570 005

  • University of Rajasthan,
    Jaipur - 302 004

  • Utkal University, PO Vani
    Vihar, Bhubaneshwar Orissa-4

  • Vidya Sagar University, PO
    Midnapore, West Bengal

  • Vinoba Bhave University,
    Hazaribagh - 825 301

  • Visva-Bharati, PO
    Santiniketan-731 235


International Focus in Anthropology 



The American Anthropological
Association, 4350 N. Fairfax DR., Suite 640 Arlington, VA
22203


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